Basic Information of Internet Functions

A Record 

An A record is part of the zone file. It is used to point Internet traffic to an IP address. For example, you can use an "A record" to designate to send traffic to your web site at IP address You can also designate to go to a separate IP address.



(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data over regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. An ADSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line. A commonly discussed configuration of ADSL would allow a subscriber to receive data (download) at speeds of up to 1.544 Megabits per second, and to send (upload) data at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. Thus the 'Asymmetric' part of the acronym. Another commonly discussed configuration would be symmetrical: 384 kilobits per second in both directions. In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second. ADSL is often discussed as an alternative to ISDN, allowing higher speeds in cases where the connection is always to the same place. See Also: bit , bps , ISDN


Affiliate Program 

The 1&1 Affiliate Program lets you earn money by referring customers to 1&1. We provide you with a banners and links to be added to your site. Each time a customer you’ve referred signs up with us, we’ll pay you a commission. Our automated tracking system ensures that you get credit for all new customers that originate from your website.


Anonymous FTP 

Anonymous File Transfer Protocol allows the public to log into an FTP server with a common login (usually "FTP" or "anonymous" and any password (usually the person's e-mail address is used as the password). Anonymous FTP is beneficial for the distribution of large files to the public, avoiding the need to assign large numbers of login and password combinations for FTP access. See Also: FTP



A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent. See Also: HTML , Java



ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. Landmark packet-switching network established in 1969 by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war. See Also: Internet



(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- This is the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111, plus parity.



ATM -- Asynchronous Transfer Mode. International standard for cell relay in which multiple service types (such as voice, video, or data) are conveyed in fixed-length (53-byte) cells. Fixed-length cells allow cell processing to occur in hardware, thereby reducing transit delays. ATM is designed to take advantage of high-speed transmission media such as E3, SONET, and T3.


Authorization code 

An Auth (authorization) code is a 6 to 16 character code assigned by the Registrar at the time a domain name is created or after it is transferred. The Auth Code is basically a password for transfer of the domain. Auth Codes are an extra security measure, ensuring that only the owner of the domain can make transfers. All .org, .info, .biz, .name and .us domains require an authorisation code. If you do not know your Auth Code, you can obtain it from your Registrar.



A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative, as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network. See Also: Network



The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available for network signals. The term is also used to describe the rated throughput capacity of a given network medium or protocol. In short, bandwidth is a loose term used to describe the throughput capacity (measured in Kilobits or Megabits per second) of a specific circuit.See Also: Bps , Bit , T-1, OC-3.



Unit of signaling speed equal to the number of discrete signal elements transmitted per second. Baud is synonymous with bits per second (bps). In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second). See Also: Bit , Modem.



(BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII. See Also: ASCII , MIME , UUENCODE



(Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerised data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second. See Also: Bandwidth , Bps , Byte , Kilobyte , Megabyte



(Bits-Per-Second) -- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per second. See Also: Bandwidth , Bit



Client software that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources. Examples include Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator. See Also: Client , URL , WWW , Netscape , Mosaic , Home Page (or Homepage)



(By The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum. See Also: IMHO , TTFN



A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made. See Also: Bit


CGI Common Gateway Interface 

"Common Gateway Interface", CGI allows HTML pages to interact with programming applications.


Cname (canonical name) 

Also referred to as a CNAME record. It is a record in a DNS database that indicates the true host name of a computer that its aliases are associated with. For example, if "" points to a mail server instead of an the IP address, you could put in " CNAME" so that if the IP address of the mail server ( is changed, you won't have to make any updates.



The most common meaning of 'Cookie' on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser. The Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server. Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser's settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online 'shopping cart' information, user preferences, etc. When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customise what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user's requests. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their 'expire time' has not been reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them. See Also: Browser , Server



Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialised society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well. See Also: Cyberspace



Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.



A database management system (DBMS) is a computer programme (or more typically, a suite of them) designed to manage a database (a large set of structured data), and run operations on the data requested by numerous clients. Typical examples of DBMS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems. Originally found only in large organisations with the computer hardware needed to support large data sets, DBMSs have more recently emerged as a fairly standard part of any company back office.


DC Dynamic Content 

With the 1&1 Dynamic Content, content is dynamically generated through a web feed. Therefore you can have up-to-date news content on your website without having to manually change it everytime. From the Control Panel, all you need to do is include the javascript code into your website. Some things can be customised like font type, background colour, width, header etc.


Dedicated Server 

For those customers that want the advantages of co-location without the hassles of purchasing their own server. See co-location.



The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.


DNS: Domain Naming System 

DNS stands for Domain Name System and is a distributed, replicated system which allows name servers to map domain names to an IP number. DNS is integral to the Internet in that it allows people to use hostnames ( rather than IP addresses ( in web, e-mail, and other Internet protocols.


Domain Name 

The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names:,, can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names in the examples above. It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name. See Also: IP Number


DSC Dynamic Site Creator 

The DynamicSiteCreator enables you to create homepage as Flash animated pages. Using DSC you can create a fully functioning Flash site without any flash programming skills. You can have animated and interactive flash pages.



Electronic Commerce. Refers to the general exchange of goods and services via the Internet.



(Electronic Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses (Mailing List). See Also: Listserv , Maillist


E-mail Headers 

E-mail headers are the first part of an e-mail message containing controlling and meta-data such as the subject, origin, destination, path, and priority.



A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer. See Also: Bandwidth , LAN



(Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over.



An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.


Fire Wall 

A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes. See Also: Network , LAN



Originally, flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the use of flowery language and flaming well was an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude. See Also: Flame War Flame War When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debaters, rather than discussion of their positions. A heated exchange. See Also: Flame


FQDN - Fully Qualified Domain Name 

A fully qualified domain name (or FQDN) is an unambiguous domain name that specifies the node's position in the DNS tree hierarchy absolutely. To distinguish an FQDN from a regular domain name, a trailing period is added. ex: An FQDN differs from a regular domain name by its absoluteness; a suffix will not be added. For example, given a device with a hostname of "myhost" and a domain name of "", the fully qualified domain name is "". It therefore uniquely defines the device whilst there might be many hosts in the world called "myhost", there can only be one "". Notice that there is a dot at the very end of the domain name, i.e. it ends ".com." and not ".com" this indicates that the name is an FQDN. For example "" could be ambiguous, because it could be the prefix of a longer domain name such as "", whereas "" is a fully qualified domain name. Technically, the dot comes before the empty label indicating the root of the Domain Name System hierarchy, and so an FQDN is sometimes called a rooted domain name. In practice, the dot is almost always omitted in everyday applications, making such domain references technically ambiguous. The maximum permitted length of an FQDN is 255 bytes, with an additional restriction to 63 bytes for each label within the domain name. The syntax of domain names is discussed in various RFCs RFC 1035, RFC 1123 and RFC 2181. Labels in FQDNs are restricted to a limited character set, consisting of the ASCII letters A to Z, digits, and the "-" character, and are not case-sensitive. Internationalized domain names expand the character repertoire of domain names to include non-ASCII characters, by encoding Unicode characters into byte strings within the normal FQDN character set. As a result, the character length limits of internationalized domain names are content-dependent. A FQDN is not the same as a Universal Resource Locator (URL) as it lacks the TCP/IP protocol name to be used in communication with the host. A URL always starts with "://", and so includes the communication protocol (like "http://", or "ftp://"), and can include a directory path, a filename and a TCP port number. Sometimes FQDNs are specified instead of the full URLs on websites etc., in which case the protocol is assumed to be HTTP on TCP port 80; and web browsers use this as the default if it is not otherwise specified.



(File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous FTP servers.



The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.



1024 Megabytes See Also: Byte , Megabyte



A widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while. See Also: Client , Server , WWW , Hypertext



As used in reference to the World Wide Web, 'hit' means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 'hits' would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics. 'hits' are often used as a very rough measure of load on a server, e.g. 'Our server has been getting 300,000 hits per month.' Because each 'hit' can represent anything from a request for a tiny document (or even a request for a missing document) all the way to a request that requires some significant extra processing (such as a complex search request), the actual load on a machine from 1 hit is almost impossible to define.


Home Page (or Homepage) 

Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organisation, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. 'Check out so-and-so's new Home Page.' Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically any web page as a 'homepage,' e.g. 'That web site has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.' See Also: Browser , Web



Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET. See Also: Node , Network



This term can be used to refer to the housing of a web site, e-mail or a domain. See Email hosting and Web Site hosting for more details.



(HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear, additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape or Mosaic. See Also: Client , Server , WWW



(HyperText Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client programme on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW). See Also: Client , Server , WWW



Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.



The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol) is an application layer Internet protocol that allows a local client to access e-mail on a remote server.



(In My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of many shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums. See Also: TTFN , BTW



(Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent networks into a vast global internet. See Also: internet



(Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state. See Also: Internet , Network



InterNIC (now known as Network Solutions) once held an exclusive contract with the U.S. government to assign domain names ending with a .com, net, and .org. Since their contract expired, the U.S. government has opened the monopoly once held by Network Solutions and now there are many different registrars who can register these domain names.



A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the Internet are being used in private networks, for example, many companies have web servers that are available only to employees. Note that an Intranet may not actually be an Internet -- it may simply be a network. See Also: internet , Internet , Network


IP Number 

(Internet Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember. See Also: Domain Name , Internet , TCP/IP



(Internet Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.



(Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly becoming available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.



(Internet Service Provider) -- An company that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money. See Also: Internet



Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programmes that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programmes (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java programme to do almost anything a regular computer programme can do, and then include that Java programme in a Web page. See Also: Applet



A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes. See Also: Byte , Bit



(Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building. See Also: Ethernet



Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line. See Also: T-1 , T-3


Local Registry Fees 

Most TLDs require initial registration fees as well as annual or bi-annual renewal fees. Prices vary from cost-free to thousands of dollars per domain depending on the TLD chosen as well as the registration organisation chosen. Typical registration fees for TLDs are from £2.50 to £.99 for 1 year of service.



Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password). Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference. See Also: Password



(or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the mail list. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.



A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes. See Also: Byte , Bit , Kilobyte



Musical Instrument Digital Interface -- A network and accompanying protocol developed in the 1970's for transmitting various information between musical and other devices including keyboards, samplers, lights, controllers, etc.



(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc. An e-mail programme is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable. Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file being sent (e.g. a Quicktime video file), and the method that should be used to turn it back into its original form. Besides e-mail software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers' list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type. See Also: Browser , Client , Server , Binhex , UUENCODE



Generally speaking, 'to mirror' is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to 'mirror sites' which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource. Another common use of the term 'mirror' refers to an arrangement where information is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer keeps on working without losing anything. See Also: FTP , Web



(MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line, that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.


Modify (Domain Name) 

The database that the TLD registries maintain need to be accurate in order for name resolution, billing, renewal notices and public records to be processed correctly. Typically modifications are required when name servers need to change or the contacts change e-mail or postal address or phone number. The procedures for modifying records will depend on the registry.



(Mud, Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments, so far only text-based. See Also: MUD , MUSE



The first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic has been licensed by several companies and there are several other pieces of software as good or better than Mosaic, most notably, Netscape. See Also: Browser , Client , WWW



(MPEG, audio layer 3) - Used for the compression of audio signals. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove all redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal. The result is layer 3 shrinks the original sound data without sacrificing sound quality. MP3 are smaller so they can be easily transferred over the Internet.



(Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all that lies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact with in their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively. See Also: MOO , MUSE



(Multi-User Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence. See Also: MOO , MUD


MX Record: Mail Exchange 

Mail Exchange record is part of the zone file and is used to designate which mail server machine should process e-mail for a specific domain.



MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL Database Management System (DBMS) with an estimated six million installations. MySQL AB makes MySQL available as free software under the GNU General Public License (GPL), but they also dual-license it under traditional proprietary licensing arrangements for cases where the intended use is incompatible with the GPL.


Name Servers 

A computer that performs the mapping of easily remembered domain names to IP addresses. Sometimes referred to as a host server.



The etiquette on the Internet. See Also: Internet



Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation. See Also: Internet



A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognised as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation also produces web server software. Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating new elements for the HTML language used by Web pages -- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally supported. The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic Communications and soon changed the name to Netscape Communications Corporation. See Also: Browser , Mosaic , Server , WWW



Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an Internet. See Also: internet , Internet , Intranet



The name for discussion groups on USENET. See Also: USENET



(Networked Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is Network Solutions, which is where new domain names are registered. Another definition: NIC also refers to Network Interface Card which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all examples of NICs.



(Network News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used by client and server software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection. See Also: Newsgroup , TCP/IP , USENET



Any single computer connected to a network. See Also: Network , Internet , internet


Packet Switching 

The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.


Parking (Domain Name) 

Registries require the use of name servers or hosts for every domain registered. Parking is the process by which someone selects a domain name, and "parks" it by registering the domain name under someone's name servers. Parking can be done by anyone, to anyone else who has active name servers. However, parking a domain name alone will result in no service (webhosting, e-mail) for that particular domain name.



A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be: Hot-6 See Also: Login



Sending an e-mail claiming to be a legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam a user into surrendering private information. The e-mail directs the user to visit a website where they are asked to update personal information. This information will ultimately be used for identity theft.



A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins. The idea behind plug-in's is that a small piece of software is loaded into memory by the larger programme, adding a new feature, and that users need only install the few plug-ins that they need, out of a much larger pool of possibilities. Plug-ins are usually developed by a third party.



(Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail. See Also: SLIP , PPP



3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected. On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form: gopher:// shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70). Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows programme so that it will run on a Macintosh. See Also: Domain Name , Server , URL



A single message entered into a network communications system. E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message board. See Also: Newsgroup



(Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet. See Also: IP Number , Internet , SLIP , TCP/IP



The process whereby the name servers throughout the world have updated their records for a specific domain. For example, if you move your domain from one host to another, it will take around 24 hours or so for the new address to broadcast everywhere. During that 24 hour period, the traffic is decreasing at the old location and increasing at the new location.



(Public Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned telephone system.


Register (Domain Name)

Since every domain is unique, registries have been set up to assign domains to individuals and organisations. When a domain is registered with the appropriate registry, that domain is assigned and becomes no longer available for anyone else to use. Typically, there are registration and renewal fees (local registry fees) associated with the right to use a domain. However, there are some TLDs that are provided at no charge.


Registrant (Domain Name) 

The entity, organisation or individual that will be using the domain name.


Registrar (Domain Name) 

Some registries don't provide the ability for end users to register domains with them directly. They might require end users to purchase the domain through an Internet provider that is acting as the registrar.


Registry (Domain Name) 

An organisation responsible for assigning domain names for the TLD that they manage. Furthermore, it is their responsibility to update the global DNS tables that all nameservers use to resolve domain names. For example, InterNIC is the registry for .COM, .NET and .ORG domain names.


Renewal (Domain Name) 

Most TLDs need to be renewed at some scheduled yearly interval. This is an opportunity for both the registrant and the registry to update their records as well as collect any applicable renewal fees.


Resolution (domain Name) 

The conversion of an internet address or domain name into the corresponding physical location.



(Request For Comments) -- The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on line, as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.



A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on. See Also: Network , Packet Switching


Security Certificate 

A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted 'fingerprint' that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate. In order for an SSL connection to be created, both sides must have a valid Security Certificate. See Also: Certificate Authority , SSL



A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out. A single server machine could have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network. See Also: Client , Network



(Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP. See Also: Internet , PPP



(Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed data transfer.



(Simple Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program receiving mail should interact. Almost all Internet e-mail is sent and received by clients and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set up an e-mail server on the Internet one would look for e-mail server software that supports SMTP. See Also: Client , Server



(Simple Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches. A device is said to be 'SNMP compatible' if it can be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as 'PDU's' - Protocol Data Units. Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP 'agent' software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages. Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled along with the device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP software is designed to handle a wide variety of devices. See Also: Network , Router Spam (or Spamming) An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone's low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.) E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message to each. See Also: Maillist , USENET



Spamming is the abuse of any electronic communications medium to send unsolicited messages in bulk. While its definition usually extends to the sending of any unsolicited bulk electronic communication, some exclude from the definition of the term "spam" messages considered by the receiver (or even just the sender) to be targeted, non-commercial, or wanted. In the popular eye, the most common form of spam is that delivered in e-mail as a form of commercial advertising. However, over the short history of electronic media, people have spammed for many purposes other than the commercial, and in many media other than e-mail. Spammers have developed a variety of spamming techniques, which vary by media: e-mail spam, instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engines spam, spam in blogs, and mobile phone messaging spam. Spamming is economically viable because advertisers have effectively no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists. Because the barrier to entry is so low, the volume of unsolicited mail has produced other costs which are borne by the public (in terms of lost productivity and fraud) and by Internet service providers, which must add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming is widely reviled, and has been the subject of legislation in a number of jurisdictions.



Forging an e-mail header to make it appear that is came from somewhere or someone other than the actual source. In some jurisdictions, e-mail spoofing anyone other than yourself is illegal.



(Structured Query Language) -- A specialised programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.



SQL (commonly expanded to Structured Query Language) is the most popular computer language used to create, modify and retrieve data from relational database management systems. The language has evolved beyond its original purpose to support object-relational database management systems. It is an ANSI/ISO standard.



(Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between web browsers and web servers. URL's that begin with 'https' indicate that an SSL connection will be used. SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity. In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate, which each side's software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends using information from both its own and the other side's Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from, and that the message has not been tampered with. See Also: Browser , Server , Security Certificate , URL



The Sunrise period is the term that is used by the Domain Name industry to describe the inital period of registration of New Domains, where restrictions on who can apply are in place.



(System Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.



A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used to connect networks to the Internet. See Also: Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-3



A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video. See Also: Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-1



Your registration agent (or Internet Service Provider) may be a Nominet UK Tag holder. A tag is one word all in capitals that uniquely identifies your registration agent. It also means that they have access to Nominet's automated domain name registration and modification system.



(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software. See Also: IP Number , Internet , UNIX



The command and programme used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/programme gets you to the login: prompt of another host.



1024 gigabytes. See Also: Byte , Kilobyte



A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.


Terminal Server 

A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet. See Also: LAN , Modem , Host , Node , PPP , SLIP



A thread in computer science is short for a thread of execution. Threads are a way for a program to split itself into two or more simultaneously running tasks. (The name "thread" is by analogy with the way that a number of threads are interwoven to make a piece of fabric). Multiple threads can be executed in parallel on many computer systems. This multithreading generally occurs by time slicing (where a single processor switches between different threads) or by multiprocessing (where threads are executed on separate processors). Threads are similar to processes, but differ in the way that they share resources. Many modern operating systems directly support both time-sliced and multiprocessor threading with a process scheduler. The operating system kernel allows programmers to manipulate threads via the system call interface. Some implementations are called kernel threads, whereas lightweight processes is a specific type of kernel threads that share the same states and informations. Absent that, programs can still implement threading by using timers, signals, or other methods to interrupt their own execution and hence perform a sort of ad hoc time-slicing. These are sometimes called user-space threads.


Top Level Domain: (TLD) 

A Top Level Domain (TLD) is the uppermost in the hierarchy of domain names. For example, is our domain name. The "net" is considered the TLD and the "" is considered the second level domain. Together they form a domain name which is unique. There are two types of TLDs. The most common type is the Generic or Global TLDs which include .COM, .NET, .ORG, .MIL, .INT and .EDU. There is a possibility that new gTLDs will be introduced in the near future. National or ccTLDs are two letter country code domains that are managed by a registry designated and controlled by each specific country. Each registry might have differing prices, residency requirements and structure.



As it relates to domain names... a word, phrase or slogan used to identify and distinguish the source of the goods or services. Trademark law may be different worldwide. If someone registers a domain name such as then Microsoft would need to go to the courts in Tonga to fight to get the name back. Expensive international litigation is one reason why it is important to protect your trademarks before someone else registers the names.


Transfer (Domain Name) 

On occasion, domains are sold to another organisation or sometimes the name of a company might change. Most registries require a letter of permission from the old owner to hand over control to the new owner. The procedures for Transfer of ownership will depend on the registry.



(Ta Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum. See Also: IMHO , BTW



A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.



(Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this: or telnet:// or news:new.newusers.questions etc. The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape, or Lynx. See Also: Browser , WWW



A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet, maybe half. USENET is completely decentralised, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups. See Also: Newsgroup



(Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via e-mail. See Also: Binhex , MIME



(Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher servers. The Veronica database can be searched from most major gopher menus. See Also: Gopher



(Wide Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are ranked (scored) according to how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine the search process.



(Wide Area Network) -- Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus. See Also: Internet , internet , LAN , Network



See: WWW



Most registries maintain a database of domain names and their associated contact information. Users can query these databases through a program called Whois.



(World Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together. See Also: Browser , FTP , Gopher , HTTP , Telnet , URL , WAIS


Zone file 

The group of files that reside on the domain host or nameserver. The zone file designates a domain, its subdomains and mail server.

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